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Open Access Highly Accessed Review

Acute cough: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

Peter V Dicpinigaitis1*, Gene L Colice2, Mary Jo Goolsby3, Gary I Rogg1, Sheldon L Spector4 and Birgit Winther5

Author Affiliations

1 Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA

2 George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA

3 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, Augusta, GA, USA

4 UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA

5 University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USA

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Cough 2009, 5:11  doi:10.1186/1745-9974-5-11

Published: 16 December 2009

Abstract

Background

Acute cough is one of the most common complaints prompting patient visits to healthcare professionals. Despite the broad repercussions of acute cough on patient quality of life, school and work productivity, and public health resources, research on this condition is minimal, as are the available treatment options. Many patients use over-the-counter medicines, which are often ineffective for symptom relief. Some therapies may achieve antitussive activity, but at the expense of unpleasant or intolerable side effects.

Unmet needs

When considering the treatments currently available for the management of acute cough, the multiple limitations of such treatments are quite apparent. Most of these treatments lack clinically proven efficacy and reliability to support their use. This reinforces the need for the generation of quality scientific data from well-performed clinical trials. Hopefully, the result will be the development of safer, more effective and more reliable therapeutic options in the management of acute cough.

Cough assessment and management

Acute cough can be due to a variety of causes, and it is worthwhile to consider these pathogenic factors in some detail. It is also important to be familiar with the effects that acute cough has on patients' quality of life, work productivity, and the healthcare system; proper awareness of these effects may contribute to better understanding of the social impact of cough. In reference to the available treatments for the management of acute cough, adequate knowledge of the type of over-the-counter and prescription products in the market, as well as their mode of action and advantages/disadvantages, may provide expanded pharmacotherapeutic opportunities and facilitate better clinical decisions. However, due to the drawbacks of current treatment options, ideas for future cough management and newer products need to be considered and tested.

Conclusion

In view of the socio-economic impact of acute cough and the limitations of available treatments, a renewed interest in the management of acute cough needs to be encouraged. The current strategies for acute cough management need to be reassessed, with a focus on developing new, reliable products and formulations with proven efficacy and safety.